Data needs to be accepted…!

It will reveal what kind of people we are… Jean-Luc Picard, Captain of the Starship USS Enterprise-D

Maybe this post is just an excuse to get a Star Trek, Jean-Luc and Data reference in?! In this scene Jean-Luc is giving a testimony as to Data’s rights to be treated as an equal. For those that aren’t familiar with him, he’s a highly developed AI “being” who is desperately trying to find a way to fit in. What I, however want to focus on is data with a small “d”. Sorry Data!

I think some people in Education may be relieved if they saw the headline:

Breaking News: Diversity, the negative impact of making your employees feeling valued.

Of course we are far too sophisticated to say that out loud. However in every day decisions of strategy and policy, this is exactly what is said!

If this wasn’t the case would we be STILL be seeing the picture we have before us?!

So let’s look at the facts and data behind the “hype”.

All the of the data that I will discuss has been taken from a lesser publicised Ethnicity Facts and Figures built by the Race Disparity Unit within U.K. government. The document is fascinating and furthermore they will actively help and support your usage of the data.

I kid you not.. this a complete treasure trove ready to be mined! If you’ve never seen it before.. delve in!

The data (extracts) below shows the journey, by ethnicity, from performance at A level through to the workforce statistics. It will be interesting to see at what stage the “under-representation” manifests.

Population of England and Wales

Main facts and figures

  • according to the 2011 Census, the total population of England and Wales was 56.1 million, and 86.0% of the population was White
  • people from Asian ethnic groups made up the second largest percentage of the population (at 7.5%), followed by Black ethnic groups (at 3.3%), Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups (at 2.2%) and Other ethnic groups (at 1.0%)
  • among the specific ethnic groups, people from the White British ethnic group made up the largest percentage of the population (at 80.5%), followed by Other White (4.4%) and Indian (2.5%)
  • from 2001 to 2011, the percentage of the population of England and Wales that was White British decreased from 87.4% to 80.5%, while the Other White group saw the largest increase in their share of the population, from 2.6% to 4.4%
  • the percentage of the population from a Black African background doubled from 0.9% in 2001 to 1.8% in 2011

By ethnicity

Summary

The 2011 Census data shows that:

  • the total population of England and Wales was 56.1 million
  • 48.2 million people (86.0%) were from White ethnic groups, with 45.1 million of those identifying with the White British group (80.5% of the population) and 2.5 million with the Other White ethnic group (4.4%)
  • 4.2 million people (7.5%) were from Asian ethnic groups, with 1.4 million of those identifying with the Indian ethnic group (2.5%), and 1.1 million with the Pakistani ethnic group (2.0%)
  • 1.9 million people (3.3%) were from Black ethnic groups, with just under 1 million of those identifying with the Black African ethnic group (1.8%), and 0.6 million with the Black Caribbean ethnic group (1.1%)
  • 1.2 million people (2.2%) had Mixed ethnicity, with 0.4 million of those identifying with the Mixed White/Black Caribbean group (0.8%), and 0.3 million with the Mixed White and Asian group (0.6%)
  • 0.6 million people (1.0%) belonged to other ethnic groups

By ethnicity over time

Summary

Census data shows that:

  • from 2001 to 2011, the percentage of the population of England and Wales that identified as White British decreased from 87.4% to 80.5%
  • other ethnic groups whose percentage of the population decreased were White Irish (from 1.2% to 0.9%) and Mixed White/Black African (from 0.4% to 0.3%)
  • the Other White group saw the largest increase in their share of the population, from 2.6% to 4.4% – this group includes people born in Poland, who became the second largest group of residents born outside the UK (at 579,000) behind people born in India (694,000)
  • the percentage of the population from a Black African background doubled from 0.9% in 2001 to 1.8% in 2011

Destinations of students after 16 to 18 study

Main facts and figures

  • 81% of students went into education, apprenticeships or employment for at least 2 terms after reaching the end of 16 to 18 study (including A levels) in July 2017
  • 47% continued their education, 25% went into employment and 10% went into apprenticeships
  • students from the Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were the most likely out of all ethnic groups to go into education, apprenticeships or employment
  • the percentages of Asian, Black and White students going into education, apprenticeships or employment were all above the national average
  • White British students were the most likely to go into employment (29%) and apprenticeships (11%) out of all ethnic groups
  • the ethnic groups most likely to have no sustained education, apprenticeships or employment were White Gypsy Roma (34%) and Traveller of Irish Heritage (33%) – however, these results are less reliable due to small numbers of pupils

 By ethnicity

Summary 

Figures for the White Gypsy and Roma and Traveller of Irish Heritage ethnic groups are based on a small number of pupils and are less reliable as a result.

The data shows that:

  • 81% of students who reached the end of 16 to 18 study (including A levels) in July 2017 went into education, apprenticeships or employment immediately after
  • 47% continued their education, 25% went into employment and 10% went into apprenticeships
  • students from the Chinese (87%) and Indian (88%) ethnic groups were the most likely out of all ethnic groups to stay in education, apprenticeships or employment 
  • the Chinese ethnic group also had the highest percentage of students staying in education (79%), followed by Indian (73%), Asian Other and Black African (both 71%)
  • 29% of White British students went into employment, the highest percentage out of all ethnic groups, followed by Mixed White and Black Caribbean students (27%)
  • White British students were the most likely to go into apprenticeships (11%)
  • the White Gypsy and Roma ethnic group had the lowest percentage of students staying in education (13%), followed by the Traveller of Irish Heritage (22%)
  • the ethnic groups most likely to have no sustained education or employment were White Gypsy and Roma (34%) and Traveller of Irish Heritage (33%)

By ethnicity over time

Summary 

This data only includes students who have completed A levels or other level 3 qualifications.

The data shows that, in the 8 academic years to July 2018:

  • the percentage of students going into education, apprenticeships or employment after their A levels (or other level 3 qualifications) went up from 87% to 88%
  • the percentage going into apprenticeships increased from 4% to 7%
  • the percentage going into employment stayed at 23%
  • students from the Bangladeshi, Black African, Black Other and Asian Other ethnic groups went from having below average outcomes to having above average outcomes
  • the percentage of pupils from the Bangladeshi ethnic group going into education, apprenticeships or employment went up from 85% to 90%, the biggest increase out of all ethnic groups
  • pupils from the Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were consistently among the most likely to go into education, apprenticeships or employment

Students aged 16 to 18 achieving 3 A grades or better at A level

  • in 2018, White pupils had the lowest entry rate into higher education (where ‘entry rate’ is the percentage of state school pupils aged 18 years accepted into higher education) – this has been the case every year since 2006
  • pupils from the Chinese ethnic group have consistently had the highest entry rate into higher education during the period studied
  • entry rates in 2018 were higher for all ethnic groups compared with those in 2006
  • compared with 2017, the rates for the Mixed and Other ethnic groups both fell by 0.1 percentage points in 2018

Main facts and figures

  • in 2016/17, 222,084 students at the end of 16 to 18 study were entered for at least one A level or applied A level, and ethnicity was known for 181,348 students (82% of them)
  • of the students for whom ethnicity was known, 76% were White, 12% were Asian, 5% were Black, 5% had Mixed ethnicity, 1% were from the Chinese ethnic group, and 2% were from the Other ethnic group
  • overall, 13.4% of students achieved 3 A grades or better at A level (including students for whom ethnicity wasn’t known)
  • 24.8% of students from the Chinese ethnic group achieved 3 A grades or better, the highest percentage out of all broad ethnic groups, followed by 13.0% of students with Mixed ethnicity, 11.3% of White students, 10.9% of Asian students, 9.9% of students from the Other ethnic group, and 5.3% of Black students
  • out of all specific ethnic groups, students from the Chinese ethnic group were most likely to achieve 3 A grades or better at A level, and Black Caribbean students were least likely to (with 3.6% doing so) – although the data shows that no Traveller of Irish Heritage students achieved 3 A grades or better at A levels, there were only 13 students in this group, so any generalisations based on this result are unreliable.
  • By ethnicity
  • Summary

    This data shows that:

    • overall in 2016/17, 13.4% of students achieved 3 A grades or better at A level (including those for whom ethnicity wasn’t known) 
    • students from the Chinese ethnic group were most likely to achieve 3 A grades or better at A level, with 24.8% doing so
    • students from the Black Caribbean and Black Other ethnic groups were least likely to achieve 3 A grades or better at A level, with 3.6% and 5.5% respectively doing so
    • 11.2% of White British students achieved 3 A grades or better at A level
    • the ethnicity wasn’t known for some students, usually because they had previously attended an independent school – 23.7% of this group achieved 3 A grades or better at A level
    • although the chart and table show that 0% of Traveller of Irish Heritage students and 7.7% of Gypsy/Roma students achieved 3 A grades or better at A level in 2016/17, these groups are based on small numbers of students (13 and 26 respectively) so any generalisations based on these results are unreliable.

    Entry rates into higher education

    Main facts and figures

    By ethnicity

    Summary

    This data shows that:

    • in 2018, pupils from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest entry rate into higher education (at 66.3%), while White pupils had the lowest (at 29.5%)
    • pupils from the Chinese ethnic group have had the highest entry rates every year during the period studied
    • White pupils had the lowest entry rates for 12 consecutive years since 2007
    • entry rates in 2018 were higher for all ethnic groups compared with those in 2006
    • compared with 2017, entry rates increased for all ethnic groups except for the Mixed and Other ethnic groups, where rates fell by 0.1 percentage points for both groups
    • the biggest increase in entry rates between 2006 and 2018 was among Black pupils, at 19.6 percentage points (from 21.6% to 41.2%); the smallest increase was among White pupils, at 7.7 percentage points (from 21.8% to 29.5%)

    Undergraduate degree results

    Main facts and figures

    • in 2017/18, 339,475 people graduated from an undergraduate degree (only counting those who were UK residents before their degree and whose ethnicity was known)
    • 30.9% of White graduates achieved a first class degree, compared with 14.0% of Black graduates (the highest and lowest percentages respectively out of all ethnic groups)
    • graduates with Mixed ethnicity were the most likely out of all ethnic groups to achieve an upper-second class (2:1) degree, with 50.9% doing so 
    • the difference between the percentage of White and Black graduates achieving a first class or 2:1 degree decreased by 3 percentage points between 2012/13 and 2017/18

    Degree classifications by ethnicity

    Summary 

    This data shows that:

    • in 2017/18, there were 262,415 White graduates from undergraduate courses in the UK, 37,290 Asian graduates, 21,975 Black graduates, 13,175 graduates from a Mixed background, and 4,620 graduates from Other ethnic groups – these figures only include those who were UK residents before their degree and whose ethnicity was known
    • of those that achieved a classified degree, 30.9% of White graduates from undergraduate courses achieved a first class degree, the highest percentage out of all ethnic groups, followed by 26.3% of graduates with Mixed ethnicity 
    • White graduates were over twice as likely to get a first class degree as Black graduates, who were the least likely of all ethnic groups to achieve a first class degree (with 14.0% doing so) 
    • 50.0% of White graduates achieved an upper second class degree (2:1), compared with 43.5% of Black graduates

    Degree classifications by ethnicity over time

    Summary 

    This data shows that:

    • between 2012/13 and 2017/18, the percentage of graduates achieving a first class or 2:1 degree increased for all ethnic groups
    • the largest increases were seen in the Asian (10.8 percentage points) and Black (10.7 percentage points) ethnic groups, and the smallest increase was in the White ethnic group (7.7 percentage points)
    • in the same period, the difference between the percentages of graduates from White and Black backgrounds achieving either a first class or 2:1 degree decreased by 3 percentage points (from 26.4 to 23.4 percentage points)

    School teacher workforce

    Main facts and figures

    • in 2018, 85.9% of all teachers in state-funded schools in England were White British (out of those whose ethnicity was known)
    • by comparison, 78.5% of the working age population was White British at the time of the 2011 Census
    • 3.9% of teachers were from the White Other ethnic group, the second highest percentage after the White British group
    • 92.9% of headteachers were White British
    • three-quarters of teachers were women, and there were more female than male teachers in every ethnic group

    By ethnicity

    Summary 

    This data shows that:

    • in 2018, 85.9% of all teachers in state-funded schools in England were White British (out of those whose ethnicity was known)
    • by comparison, 78.5% of the working age population was White British at the time of the 2011 Census
    • 3.9% of teachers were from the White Other ethnic group and 1.9% were from the Indian ethnic group – by comparison, 5.6% of the working age population was from the White Other group, and 3.0% was from the Indian ethnic group
    • White Irish people made up 1.6% of teachers, and 1.0% of the working age population

    By ethnicity and gender

    Summary 

    This data shows that:

    • in 2018, around three-quarters of school teachers were women
    • in every ethnic group, there were more female than male teachers 
    • among both men and women, 85.9% of teachers were White British (out of those whose ethnicity was known)
    • men from the White Other ethnic group made up 3.3% of male teachers, and White Irish men made up 1.9% (the next highest percentages)
    • women from the White Other ethnic group made up 4.0% of female teachers, and women from the Indian ethnic group made up 2.0% (the next highest percentages)

    By ethnicity and role

    Summary 

    In 2018, there were around 428,100 classroom teachers, 49,500 deputy or assistant headteachers and 22,400 headteachers.

    This data shows that:

    • White British people accounted for 92.9% of headteachers, 89.7% of deputy or assistant headteachers and 85.1% of classroom teachers (out of those whose ethnicity was known)
    • 0.1% of classroom teachers were Mixed White and Black African, the lowest percentage out of all ethnic groups in this role
    • 0.1% of deputy and assistant headteachers were from the Mixed White and Black African, and Chinese ethnic groups, the lowest percentage out of all ethnic groups in this role
    • White Irish was the only other ethnic group (as well as White British) with a higher percentage of headteachers (1.8%) than deputy or assistant head teachers (1.7%) or classroom teachers (1.5%)

    By ethnicity and type of school

    Summary 

    In 2018, there were around 250,000 nursery and primary school teachers, 219,300 secondary school teachers, 25,700 special school teachers and 5,000 teachers who were centrally employed by the local authority.

    This data shows that:

    • 88.7% of nursery and primary school teachers were White British (out of those whose ethnicity was known)
    • White British people made up 82.6% of secondary school teachers, 86.2% of special school teachers, and 90.2% of those employed by the local authority 
    • teachers from the White Other group were the next largest group in all types of school, making up 2.9% of nursery and primary school teachers, 4.8% of secondary school teachers, 5.4% of special school teachers, and 4.0% of centrally employed teachers
    • in every type of school, teachers were least likely to be from the Chinese or Mixed White and Black African ethnic groups

    By ethnicity and gender (headteachers only)

    Summary 

    This data shows that:

    • there were around 22,400 headteachers in 2018, and over two-thirds of those (around 15,000) were women
    • 97.1% of male headteachers were White (including White ethnic minorities), and 96.2% of female headteachers were White

    “So why is the representation at the top so unrepresentative? “

    I know there is a lot of information to digest here. I also know that the picture portrayed above is similar in most sectors.. if not all.

    If we truly can stand by the statement that those that work the hardest and attain the best, get the what they deserve… does the picture above show that?

    Of course we know that it doesn’t. It really doesn’t.

    What’s actually missing is the school by school data that also shows data at key points in an individuals employee life cycle.

    Is there a reason why schools choose not to collect this data and publish it?!

    If it were published what would it show?

    Would it show that people from the ethnic groups, with above average qualifications don’t get the interview, get selected, get promotions, get the pay.. stay the longest?!

    Until schools get the courage to report and publish this data we won’t know… this is the time to be brave.

    This is an ongoing journey for transparency so we can have honest conversations.. that will lead to honest actions.

    Stay strong.

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